How To Control Blood Sugar Type 1 Diabetes – Type 1 diabetes is a chronic (lifelong) autoimmune disease that prevents the pancreas from producing insulin. It requires daily treatment with insulin injections and blood sugar monitoring. Both children and adults can be diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes usually start off mildly and gradually worsen or worsen over days, weeks, or months. Contact your doctor as soon as possible if you or your child experience these symptoms.
Insulin is an important hormone that regulates blood sugar levels. Under normal circumstances, insulin works in the following phases:
When you don’t have enough insulin, too much sugar builds up in your blood, leading to hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and your body can’t use the food you eat for energy. If left untreated, it can lead to serious health problems or even death. People with type 1 diabetes need synthetic insulin every day to live and be healthy.
Although type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are forms of diabetes (as opposed to diabetes) that cause hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), they are different from each other.
In type 2 diabetes (T2D), the pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin and/or the body doesn’t always use insulin as well as it should, usually due to insulin resistance. Lifestyle factors, including obesity and lack of exercise, can also contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes, as can genetic factors.
Type 2 diabetes is most common in older adults but is becoming more common in children. Type 1 diabetes is most common in children or young adults, but it can affect people of any age.
Anyone at any age can develop type 1 diabetes (T1D), although it is most commonly diagnosed between the ages of 4 and 6 and during early puberty (10 to 14 years).
In the United States, type 1 diabetes is most common among non-Hispanic whites and occurs almost equally among people assigned female at birth and male at birth.
Although you don’t have to have a family member with type 1 diabetes to develop the disease, having a first-degree family member (parent or sibling) with type 1 diabetes increases your risk of developing it.
Type 1 diabetes is quite common. About 1.24 million people live with type 1 diabetes in the United States, and by 2050 that number is expected to increase. that number will rise to five million.
Type 1 diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases affecting children in the United States, although the disease can also be diagnosed in adults.
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes usually start off mildly and gradually worsen or worsen over days, weeks, or months. This is because your pancreas is producing less and less insulin.
If you or your child have these symptoms, it’s important to see your doctor and get tested for type 1 diabetes as soon as possible. The earlier you are diagnosed, the better.
If diagnosis is delayed, untreated type 1 diabetes can be life-threatening due to a complication called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Get emergency medical attention if you or your child have any combination of these symptoms:
Type 1 diabetes develops when your immune system accidentally attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. This destruction can occur over months or years, eventually leading to complete insulin starvation (deficiency).
Although scientists don’t yet know the exact cause of type 1 diabetes, they believe it has a strong genetic component. The risk of developing the disease without a family history is around 0.4%. If your birth mother has type 1 diabetes, your risk is 1-4% and your risk is 3-8% if your birth father has type 1 diabetes. If both of your biological parents have type 1 diabetes, your risk of developing the disease is up to 30%.
Scientists believe that if you have a genetic predisposition to type 1 diabetes, certain factors, such as viruses or environmental toxins, can trigger your immune system to attack pancreatic cells.
Diagnosing type 1 diabetes is relatively easy. If you or your child have symptoms of type 1 diabetes, your doctor will order the following tests:
Your doctor will also likely order the following tests to assess your general health and to check for diabetic ketoacidosis, a serious, acute complication of undiagnosed or untreated type 1 diabetes:
An endocrinologist, a healthcare provider who specializes in treating hormonal disorders, treats people with type 1 diabetes. Some endocrinologists specialize in diabetes.
You need to see your endocrinologist regularly to make sure your type 1 diabetes treatment is working well. Your insulin needs will change throughout your life.
People with type 1 diabetes need synthetic insulin several times a day to live and be healthy. You should also try to keep your blood sugar in a healthy range.
There are different types of synthetic insulin. Each starts at a different speed and lasts in your body for different lengths of time. You may need to use more than one type.
Some types of inulin are more expensive than others. Work with your endocrinologist to find the right type of insulin for your needs.
Along with your background insulin level (often referred to as your basal rate), you must allow yourself a certain amount of insulin when you eat and correct high blood sugar levels.
The amount of insulin you need each day depends on your life expectancy and specific circumstances. For example, you typically need higher doses of insulin during puberty, pregnancy, and when you’re taking steroid medication.
Because of this, it’s important to see your endocrinologist regularly (usually at least three times a year) to make sure your insulin dose and overall diabetes management are right for you.
People with type 1 diabetes need to closely monitor their blood sugar levels throughout the day. Maintaining healthy blood sugar levels is the best way to avoid health complications. You can monitor your blood sugar as follows:
Your healthcare provider will tell you what blood sugar target range you should be in. This depends on a variety of factors, including your:
A big part of treating type 1 diabetes is counting the carbohydrates (carbohydrates) in the food and drink you consume to get the doses of insulin you need.
Carbohydrates are a type of macronutrient found in certain foods and beverages, such as grains, candy, legumes, and milk. When your body digests food and drink containing carbohydrates, it converts them into glucose, your body’s preferred form of energy. It increases blood sugar.
Because of this, people with type 1 diabetes must self-dose with insulin when consuming carbohydrates.
Counting carbs at a basic level involves counting the grams of carbs in a meal (by reading the nutrition label) and adjusting for your insulin dose.
They use what’s called the insulin-to-carb ratio to calculate how much insulin you should take to control your blood sugar while eating. Insulin and carbohydrate intake varies from person to person and can even vary at different times of the day. Your endocrinologist will help you determine the insulin to carbohydrate ratio.
The main side effect of insulin treatment for diabetes is low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Low blood sugar can occur when you inject too much insulin due to food intake and/or activity level. Hypoglycemia is generally considered to be less than 70 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter).
The symptoms of low blood sugar can come on quickly and are perceived in different ways by people. The symptoms of hypoglycemia are uncomfortable, but they are a good warning that you need to act before your blood sugar drops any further.
If you have symptoms of hypoglycemia but cannot check your blood sugar, use the 15-15 rule until you feel better.
There is currently no cure for type 1 diabetes, but researchers are looking at ways to prevent or slow the progression of the disease through studies like TrialNet.
Researchers are also studying pancreatic islet transplants, an experimental treatment for people with brittle diabetes.
Pancreatic islets are collections of pancreatic cells that produce insulin. Your immune system attacks these cells in type 1 diabetes. A pancreatic islet transplant replaces the destroyed islets with new ones that produce and secrete insulin. In this procedure, islets are removed from the organ donor’s pancreas and transferred to a person with type 1 diabetes. Because pancreatic islet transplants are still being studied by researchers, this procedure is only available to people who participate in the study.
Because type 1 diabetes can run in families, your doctor may test your family members for autoantibodies that cause the disease. Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet, an international research network, also offers autoantibody testing for family members of people with type 1 diabetes.
The presence of autoantibodies, even without diabetic symptoms, means you are more likely to develop type 1 diabetes. If you have a sibling, child, or parent with type 1 diabetes, you may want to get autoantibodies
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