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How To Control Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Posted at February 10th, 2023 | Categorised in Manage Diabetes

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How To Control Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Next article Type 2 diabetes in young people: a severe phenotype that poses major clinical challenges and public health burden

Does Adhd Sabotage Healthy Eating? The Type 2 Diabetes Link

415 million people live with diabetes worldwide, and an estimated 193 million people have undiagnosed diabetes. Type 2 diabetes accounts for more than 90% of diabetic patients and leads to microvascular and macrovascular complications that cause severe psychological and physical distress for both patients and caregivers and place an enormous burden on systems. of health care. Despite increasing knowledge about risk factors for type 2 diabetes and evidence for successful prevention programs, the incidence and prevalence of the disease continues to increase worldwide. Early detection through screening programs and the availability of safe and effective therapies reduce morbidity and mortality by preventing or delaying complications. Increased understanding of specific phenotypes and genotypes of diabetes may result in more specific and tailored management of patients with type 2 diabetes, as demonstrated in patients with adult-onset diabetes of the young. In this Seminar we describe recent advances in the diagnosis and management of type 2 diabetes, current controversies, and future directions of care. Review Nutrition science and policy Dietary and nutritional strategies in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes 2018; 361 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/.k2234 (Published 13 June 2018) Cite this as: 2018;361:k2234 Food for thought Click here to read other articles in this collection

Common ground in dietary approaches to the prevention, management and potential remission of type 2 diabetes can be found, argue Nita G Forouhi and colleagues

Dietary factors are very important in the management and prevention of type 2 diabetes. Despite progress in formulating evidence-based dietary guidelines, controversy and confusion remain. In this article, we review the evidence for areas of consensus, as well as ongoing uncertainty and controversy regarding dietary guidelines for type 2 diabetes. What is the best diet strategy? Is it possible to achieve remission of type 2 diabetes with behavioral lifestyle changes or is a condition that causes a progressive decline in health inevitable? We also examine the impact of dietary transition and population-specific factors in the global context and discuss future directions for effective dietary and nutrition strategies in the management of type 2 diabetes and their implementation.

Diabetes is one of the biggest public health problems in the world: its prevalence is estimated to increase from 425 million people in 2017 to 629 million in 2045, with associated health, social and economic costs. trend is needed, especially from investing in modifiable factors including diet, physical activity, and weight. Diet is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide according to the Global Burden of Disease Study conducted in 188 countries.2 The importance of nutrition in the management and prevention of type 2 diabetes through its effect on weight and metabolic control is clear. However, nutrition is also one of the most controversial and difficult aspects of managing type 2 diabetes.

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The idea of ​​being on a “diet” for a chronic, lifelong condition like diabetes is enough to put off many people, as knowing what to eat and maintaining an optimal eating pattern is difficult. Medical nutrition therapy has been introduced to guide a systematic and evidence-based approach to the management of diabetes through diet, and its effectiveness has been demonstrated, 3 but difficulties remain. Although most guidelines for diabetes recommend starting pharmacotherapy only after making lifestyle changes in diet and physical activity, this is not always followed in practice worldwide. Most doctors are not trained in nutritional interventions and that is a barrier to guiding patients.45 Moreover, talking to patients about nutrition takes time. In many settings, outside of specialist diabetes centers where trained nutritionists/educators are available, diabetes nutrition advice is, at best, a printed menu given to the patient. In resource-poor settings, when type 2 diabetes is diagnosed, the patient often leaves the clinic with a list of new medications and not much else. There is wide variation in the use of dietary modification alone to manage type 2 diabetes: for example, estimates of less than 5-10% of patients with type 2 diabetes in India6 and 31% in the UK have been reported, although patients are treated with lifestyle. The steps may be less supervised than in patients on medication for type 2 diabetes.7 Although systems are typically in place to record and track steps in the diabetes care process in medical records, dietary information is often neglected, even though at least moderate attention to diet is necessary to achieve adequate glycemic control. General practitioners and hospital clinics should routinely collect this information but how to do so is a challenge.58

Progress has been made in understanding the best dietary advice for diabetes, but there are wider issues. For example, increasing the intake of vegetables and fruits is recommended by most dietary guidelines, but the costs are very high in many settings: the cost of two servings of fruit and three servings of vegetables per day per individual (in “5-a – day “to meet” the guideline) which accounts for 52%, 18%, 16% and 2% of household income in low, low to middle, upper to middle and high income countries respectively respectively. There is also diabetes, with products that are often unhealthy, and sometimes less healthy, than regular food. Following new European Union legislation, food regulations in some countries, including the UK , was recently updated in July 2016 to ban such misleading labels. However, this is not the case elsewhere, and what will happen to such regulations after the UK leaves the European Union is unclear. well, that highlights the importance of the political environment.

In some, most developed, countries, dietary guidelines for diabetes management have changed from a focus on a low-fat diet to the recognition that more important considerations are macronutrient quality ( that is, the type versus the amount of the macronutrient), the avoidance. of processed food (especially processed starches and sugars), and overall dietary patterns. Many systematic reviews and national dietary guidelines have evaluated the evidence for optimal dietary advice, and we will not repeat the evidence review.101112131415161718 Instead we focus in the following sections on some important principles for which there is broad consensus in the scientific and clinical community and highlight areas of uncertainty, but we begin by outlining three main features.

First, understanding of healthy eating for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes is largely derived from long-term prospective studies and limited evidence from randomized controlled trials in the general population, which supplemented by evidence from people with type 2 diabetes. Many published guidelines and reviews have applied assessment criteria and this evidence is often of moderate quality in a hierarchy of evidence that places randomized controlled trials at the top. Elsewhere, it has been argued that different forms of evidence examining consistency across multiple study designs, including large population-based prospective studies of clinical endpoints, controlled trials of intermediate pathways, and where prospective randomized trials of clinical endpoints should be used together for evidence-based. nutritional counseling. 19

Glucose Management In Hospitalized Patients

Second, it is now recognized that dietary advice for both prevention and management of type 2 diabetes should be integrated, and they should not be considered as separate entities (Figure 1). However, in those with type 2 diabetes, the level of glycemic control and type and dose of diabetes medication should be tailored to dietary intake.12 In some dietary interventions, such as high-calorie or low-carbohydrate diets, the People with diabetes usually stop. or reduce their diabetes medication and monitor closely, as discussed in the next section.

Third, while the importance of diet for weight management is recognized, there is now a greater understanding10 of the multiple pathways through which dietary factors produce health effects through the same mechanisms that rely on obesity. obesity and obesity. The influence of diet on weight, glycemia, and glucose-insulin homeostasis is directly related to glycemic control in diabetes, while other outcomes such as cardiovascular complications are largely influenced by the effect of diet on blood lipids, apolipoprotein , blood pressure, endothelial function, thrombosis, coagulation, systemic inflammation, and vascular adhesion. The effect of food and nutrients on the gut microbiome may also be relevant to the pathogenesis of diabetes, but further research is needed. Therefore, dietary quality and quantity in the longer term are related to the prevention and management of diabetes and its complications through a wide range of metabolic and physiological processes.

Type 2 diabetes is often associated with being overweight or obese and insulin resistance. Therefore, weight loss and maintaining a healthy weight is a major component of clinical management. Weight loss is also associated with improvements in glycemia, blood pressure and lipids and therefore may delay or prevent complications, especially cardiovascular events.

Most guidelines recommend promoting weight loss in overweight or obese people by reducing energy intake. Portion control is one

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