How To Manage Diabetic Ketoacidosis – Objective We propose that feedback on results is a prerequisite to ensure sustainable improvement in the management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).
Design The study was based on the concept of “theory of change”, which suggests that changes in the main factors determine the main result. A series of secondary factors can be applied to achieve improvement in these primary factors and thus the primary outcome.
Setting This study took place in a large tertiary care center in the West Midlands, UK. The region has a higher than average admission rate for diabetes and DKA in the country.
Participants All participants diagnosed with DKA according to national guidelines were included in the study, except those treated in an intensive care unit between April 2014 and March 2018.
Intervention The main intervention was monthly performance feedback. The development of a real-time DKA audit tool, an automated referral system for DKA to a specialist team, electronic blood gas monitoring and education, and a redesign of local (entrusted) guidelines are other interventions in this study.
Key Outcome Indicators Total duration of DKA, appropriate fixed-rate IV insulin infusion, fluid prescription, glucose monitoring, ketone monitoring, and specialist referral.
Results There was a significant reduction in the duration of DKA after the intervention compared to baseline. However, in the absence of regular feedback, the duration of DKA tended to increase, approaching baseline. Similar trends were noted in secondary factors affecting the duration of DKA.
Conclusion Based on these results, we recommend regular audits and feedback, which are essential to maintain improvements in DKA management.
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Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute endocrine emergency that requires rapid evaluation and treatment.1 In 2010, the Joint British Diabetes Societies developed guidelines to standardize the management of ketoacidosis in hospitals and revised them in 2013.2 These guidelines have served as a standard for several audits conducted at our facility. While these audits may have resulted in a temporary improvement in DKA treatment, it has been difficult to ascertain ongoing and ongoing improvements in DKA treatment. Reverse
3 reported that audit feedback generally results in little improvement in clinical practice, but professional behavior change is best achieved through a combination of continuing education, feedback, and audit. duration of DKA from 22.0 to 10.2 h.8 9 We hypothesize that feedback on outcomes is required to ensure sustainable improvement in DKA management, and that the loss of this feedback would lead to longer DKA duration.
DKA is characterized by the triad of hyperglycemia (blood glucose >11 mmol/L), acidosis (pH <7.3 or bicarbonate 3 mmol/L).2 10 11 Although mediated by the majority of deficits insulin (relative or absolute), may be due to systemic disease, non-compliance, or previously undiagnosed disease.Canada15 16 and 39 per 1000 patients with type 1 diabetes in Germany and Austria.17 In a recent study by Fazeli Farsani.
Although prevalence rates for DKA in the UK are not currently available, data on the incidence of DKA in the UK has improved from 51.3 per 1,000 person-years to 8 per 1,000 person-years.19 20 Note that these are reports single patient-based center. . An estimated 9.5% of the West Midlands population had diabetes in 2019, compared to the rest of the UK population (8.7%). 21 2016/2017 general practice data showed that in Birmingham there is a high prevalence of diabetes. 22 Now we have more than 100,000 emergency admissions every year, of which 20.89% suffer from diabetes. 23
About 10% of people with diabetes have type 1 diabetes.24 Some of this population (45.9% in 2015) were admitted to hospital with DKA. More worryingly, the incidence (about 4%) of hospitalized patients with type 1 diabetes who develop DKA while in the hospital remains consistent.24 This points to the need to identify key factors to improve DKA management.
This study was conducted at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Birmingham, which is part of the University Hospitals Birmingham National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust. One of the busiest NHS organizations recorded over 135,000 hospital admissions and over 115,000 A&E visits (~315 patients per day) in 2016/2017.25
All patients were diagnosed with DKA according to national guidelines between April 2014 and September 2018. Intensive care patients were excluded to avoid bias due to personalized and individualized care. Results showing an improvement in the duration of DKA up to September 2016 after certain interventions have already been reported.8 9 We divided the whole study into six different time periods (Figure 1). The study was based on the concept of the ‘theory of change’, which suggests that changes in the primary factors determine the primary outcome.26–29 A series of secondary factors were applied to achieve improvements in these primary factors and thus the primary. results. Therefore, measuring the main factors in their own subjects is a general measure of the main outcome.
The results of the initial retrospective audit from April 2014 to September 2014 were presented to frontline personnel primarily involved in the initiation of DKA treatment (emergency, acute and diabetes teams). Based on the following discussion, the primary outcome was a 50% reduction in DKA duration within the first 12 hours of DKA diagnosis. The process for selecting primary and secondary drivers is shown graphically in Figure 2. As described earlier9, the primary outcome and five primary interventions (secondary drivers) were tested using the plan-do-study-act (PDSA) approach:
Several factors underlie the main factors that influence the primary score of overall DKA duration. The bottom half of the figure describes the timing of the different interventions (secondary drivers) during the QIP. DKA, diabetic ketoacidosis. ER, emergency department; CDU, clinical decision making unit; QIP, quality improvement project.
The interrelationship between primary and secondary determinants of DKA duration is shown in Figure 3. The newly improved one-page DKA protocol and mnemonics presented in this study are shown in Figure 4. Effects of key determinants of DKA duration (FRIII suitability, fluid prescription. , monitoring of glucose monitoring, and referral to specialists) were presented to our liaison consultants in the frontline team, who then communicated the results to the rest of the team. The frontline team at our hospital consists of members of the Medical Emergency Team and the Medical Rescue Team. In our DKA pathway, patients would first be evaluated in the emergency department where the diagnosis of DKA would be confirmed and treatment initiated. Once stabilized, the patient would be transferred to our intensive care unit where they would be treated until DKA resolved. One of the authors met regularly in person with the liaison consultant throughout the process to ensure two-way communication to understand the factors that influenced the month’s performance and to initiate the necessary interventions in the following months to improve key performance the drivers. . This feedback continued until September 2016. We then investigated the impact of no monthly feedback for frontline teams from October 2016 to March 2018.
Five (numbered) primary and secondary (yellow) miscellaneous. (1) Fluid replacement is the most important first step in management. The guidelines recommend replacing at least 4 L of fluid in the first 12 hours (1000 ml in the first hour, 2000 ml in the following 4 hours and 8 hours, respectively). (2) Intravenous insulin infusion at constant rate (FRIII) disables lipolysis, thereby deinitiating DKA-induced metabolic acidosis. It is recommended to use FRIII at a dose of 0.1 Unit/kg body weight. (3) Starting FRIII will cause a rapid drop in glucose, so hourly glucose testing is required. Further infusion of glucose may be necessary later in the treatment of DKA to avoid hypoglycemia until ketogenesis is extinguished. (4) It is recommended to measure ketones every hour and aim insulin titration to reduce blood ketones by 0.5 mmol/L/hour. (5) Patients with DKA should be referred to a specialist diabetes team at admission or early in treatment. Secondary interventions in our QIP include: (A) development of a real-time audit tool; (B) automatic reference system; (C) electronic blood gas monitoring; (D) monthly feedback; and (E) education and redesign of local guidelines. DKA, diabetic ketoacidosis.
A revised one-page DKA protocol with an easy-to-remember mnemonic was introduced as part of the QIP intervention. DKA, diabetic ketoacidosis.
A total of 432 episodes of DKA were included in the study. table 1 describes the basic characteristics of the study population in each study year
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