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The Role Of Insulin In Blood Sugar Regulation”

Posted at January 11th, 2023 | Categorised in Blood Sugar

The Role Of Insulin In Blood Sugar Regulation” – Good blood sugar control is an important factor in overall health and longevity. High blood sugar levels, whether after meals or all the time, can add stress to the body and cause long-term chronic health problems.

Genetics play a big role in controlling blood sugar. Some people may stop eating junk food and not exercise enough. But for others, genetic susceptibility combines with poor food choices to raise blood sugar levels. Members will see the genotyping report below and more solutions in the Lifehacks section. Join today.

The Role Of Insulin In Blood Sugar Regulation”

Before we get into the genes involved in blood sugar control, let’s review the basics of how the body regulates blood sugar. (If you understand all of this, skip ahead.)

Glucose Regulation And Utilization In The Body

Your body regulates blood sugar levels through a complex system of negative feedback loops.

Insulin is released by the beta cells of the pancreas in response to high blood glucose levels. Although there is usually a constant, low level of insulin, when glucose levels rise, enough insulin is released to counteract the high blood glucose.

In response to insulin, skeletal muscle cells, adipose tissue (adipose), and red blood cells increase glucose absorption.

In addition to insulin, the beta cells of the pancreas also secrete amylin, which slows down the stomach and signals to your brain that you are full. This slows down digestion so that blood sugar levels don’t rise too quickly after a meal.

Blood Glucose Genes: Blood Sugar Regulation

Another hormone involved here is glucagon. Alpha cells of the pancreas secrete glucagon. But it works in the opposite direction to insulin – when blood glucose levels are low, glucagon is released.

Glucagon signals the liver to convert glycogen into glucose and release it into the blood. When needed, glucagon stimulates the liver and muscle cells to make glucose from amino acids through a process called gluconeogenesis.

Blood sugar levels are usually set between 65 and 100 mg/dL when you haven’t eaten for a while – the fasting state. (This range varies slightly depending on who defines the routine). A blood glucose level below 180 mg/dL is considered two to three hours after a meal.

The release of insulin and glucagon is a negative response: when blood sugar levels are high, insulin is released and inhibits the release of glucagon. When blood sugar levels drop, glucagon is released and insulin stops.

Hormonal Regulation Of Fuel Metabolism

This system becomes dysregulation in diabetes. People with diabetes may have trouble making enough insulin because glucagon causes the liver to still secrete glucose. Therefore, the level of glucose in the blood rises.

The obvious solution to low blood sugar is to reduce carbohydrate intake, but that’s not an easy or appropriate answer for everyone.

Glucose is tightly controlled by the body because it is toxic at high levels. You should have, but do not want too much. (Yes, you can burn fat for fuel, but the brain needs some sugar.)

Doctors diagnose diabetes when the blood glucose level is above 125 mg/dL and the oral glucose tolerance test is above 200 mg/dL.[ref]

Symptoms Of High Blood Sugar (hyperglycemia)

If your fasting blood sugar is in the range of 100-125 mg/dL for several tests, you may be considered pre-diabetic.

But what if your blood sugar spikes after eating sweets? Or what if your fasting blood sugar is around 99 mg/dL, below the pre-diabetic level? As you can see, there is a lot of gray area here.

Therefore, persistently high blood sugar levels, even if not at the level of diabetes/diabetes, may increase oxidative stress and the formation of glycation end products.

Another important point here – after the COVID-19 pandemic – is that insulin and insulin sensitivity are necessary for T cells in the immune system to fight viruses. People who have problems producing insulin (such as diabetes) or people who are sensitive to insulin (insulin resistance, prediabetes) have a weak T-cell response to viruses.[ref]

Glucose Tolerance Test

Let’s take a closer look at the blood sugar control system and look at some of the genes involved and solutions for those genes.

By looking at genetic variations that significantly affect blood sugar or insulin levels, we can understand the mechanisms that control this complex response.

Understanding your genetic susceptibility to blood sugar problems can help you create a targeted plan to keep your sugar levels stable.

First we’ll look at the science to understand how genes work, then you can test your genes in the genetics section below (exclusive Lifehacks included).

Counterregulatory Hormones: Definition And Overview

KCNJ11 gene: The KCNJ11 gene encodes a potassium channel subunit found in pancreatic beta cells. This ATP-sensitive channel opens and closes in response to blood glucose levels. ATP levels increase in the presence of glucose (cells use glucose to make more ATP). When ATP increases, ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the beta cells of the pancreas close, which then release insulin.[ref]

ABCC8 gene: KCNJ11 gene (above) encodes a subunit of the potassium-sensitive ATP channel. Another subunit, called SUR1, is encoded by the ABCC8 gene.

A type of diabetes drug called a sulfonylurea binds to SUR1 and increases insulin release. Genetic variation in ABCC8 can affect blood sugar levels.

Glucokinase (GCK gene) is important in controlling the metabolism of glucose in the liver and beta cells. In beta cells, glucose can enter the GLUT2 receptor (does not require insulin). Glucokinase in the pancreas amplifies the signal from high glucose and increases insulin secretion. Genetic variation in the GCK gene is a risk factor for diabetes.

Insulin And Glucagon Hormones

CDKAL1 (Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit-associated protein 1-like 1) is part of the signaling pathway that causes insulin release. Genetic changes in this gene can cause decreased insulin secretion, which causes high blood sugar levels when carbohydrates/sugars are consumed.[ref][ref]

Glucose molecules are too large to pass through the cell membrane without help. Therefore, in order for glucose to enter the cell, it must be transported. In fact, there are several ways of transporting glucose, depending on the type of tissue.

Muscles use a lot of energy, and transporting glucose into the muscles is the body’s way of controlling blood glucose levels.

In muscle tissue, GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4) transports glucose into cells. Transporter GLUT4 is located inside the cell and must be transferred to the cell membrane to transport glucose.

Blood Sugar Regulation Hi Res Stock Photography And Images

Insulin binds to the insulin receptor in the cell, and the signal is sent to the GLUT4 receptor, which moves it to the cell membrane. This glucose is taken up by cells through the GLUT4 receptor.

There are many genes involved in the second signal sent by the insulin receptor and GLUT4. The main insulin receptor gene, INSR, is essential for life, so mutations here are rarely compatible with life. However, changes in the signal generated by binding to the insulin receptor can alter the way the signal is transmitted to the GLUT4 receptor.

The IRS1 (insulin receptor substrate 1) gene encodes a key protein in the insulin-stimulating signaling pathway. After insulin binds to the insulin receptor, IRS1 is one of the molecules activated to send the message. IRS1 variants are also associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.[ref]

Another gene related to the insulin receptor is ENPP1 (ectoenzyme nucleotide pyrophosphate phosphodiesterase 1). This enzyme helps reduce the signal from insulin by interacting with one of the subunits of the insulin receptor. Genetic variation of this gene is associated with insulin resistance.[ref]

The Truth About Carbs, Insulin, And Weight Loss

Exercise in addition to insulin signaling for GLUT4 to translocate to the cell membrane, GLUT4 moves and takes up glucose.[ref]

The other half of the picture with glucose control is the signal to the liver to stop converting glycogen to glucose and release it into the blood.

Alpha cells in the pancreas release glucagon when blood sugar levels drop. Glucagon signals the liver to convert glycogen into glucose and then release it, which is called glycogenolysis (-lysis = breaking down, therefore destroying glycogen).

In alpha cells, a decrease in blood sugar causes a decrease in ATP production, which subsequently changes the polarization of some ion channels. This change in electrical potential causes calcium to enter the cells and release glucagon.[ref]

How Do Colder Temperatures Influence Blood Sugar Levels?

The KCNH2 gene encodes a potassium ion channel that plays different roles in the body. It is important in controlling heart rhythm and has recently been found to play an important role in alpha cells of the pancreas by secreting glucagon. .

GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide) and GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) are released by cells in the lining of the intestine in response to food.

While glucagon increases blood sugar levels by stimulating the liver to secrete glucose, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) can lower blood sugar by stimulating beta cells to secrete more insulin. in the pancreas. [ref]

GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic

Insulin: Function And Types

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